Posts from the ‘1862’ Category

From the Civil War Journal of Sgt. Sam Bloomer, 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Co. B, Dec. 24, 1861-Jan. 9, 1862

The following is an excerpt from the Civil War Diary of Sergeant Sam Bloomer, 1st Minnesota Volunteer Infantry Company B, while the regiment was at Edward’s Ferry. The entries are from the period December 24, 1861 through January 9, 1862. The entries were transcribed by Jeffrey S. Williams from the originals that are located at the Minnesota Historical Society.

The grave of Color Sgt Sam Bloomer, 1st Minnesota Infantry, at Fairview Cemetery in Stillwater, Minn.

Tuesday Dec 24th       Last night was an awful cold disagreable and windy night for the guard. Today it was freezing most all day. Had no drill in the forenoon so I went over to the picture gallery and had one more pretty taken to send off. Had a Brigade drill but Gen Gorman was gone to Washington on some official business, so in his absence Col. Tompkins of the NY 2d drilled them very much against thire good will for he run them in double quick all the while. We had no dress parade on some account. We had or rather passed a dull Christmas Eve.

Christmas Wednesday Dec 25            This morning dawned very pleasant and the whole day it was a very dull Christmas to us. Last night our sutler had a lot of goods come with all kinds of marks on them. Some were marked knifes and forks, boot blacking, pepper & c. But our Col smell a rat and had the wagon taken up to the guard house, and this morning had the boxes opened up and lo and behold they contained a lot of choice Whiskey & Brandy which to his surprise were taken up to Poolesville to the hospital department to be used in that institution. During the day 2 or 3 kegs of beer were got and some of the boys began to feel rather light headed. Had no drills, nor even dress parade I suppose the reason was it was Christmas and it dont come but one in a year. I for one wish that we had Christmas every day on the drilling account, not because we had a such good time for it was the dulest Christmas that I ever spent in all my life and I hope I never shall again. Being a soldier is not like being at home on that day. The boys in my mess got a lot of Oysters and good fresh milk and made a good soup of them. But I had to look on and see them go in right down good ernest, as I am no Oyster eater. I could not stand it to look on so I pitched in and eate a lot of bread and Molassas for a substitute of the Oysters “perhaps that is a poor substitute.” Sergeant Binns has received his papers preparatory to his discharge to day and will probably leave for Stillwater in a few days.

Thursday Dec 26th       The weather this morning was pleasant but soon the clear blue skies were over cast and like if there was a storm brewing. Our company clerk has been to work on the payroles as the pay day will soon be around again. We had no drills today nor even dress parade on some account unbeknownst to me. Some of our men being at work a short distance from camp, where they could see the Virginia shore. And they state that they saw the Rebels in a very large column marching south. A large force first of infantry then a very long line of Batteries and cavalry & c. This evening quite a large number of battery men belonging to Bakers Brigade who were going to Washington after new guns for they lost the ones they had were lost at the battle of Balls Bluff.

Friday Dec 27th           The morning dawned pleasant but the wind blew very hard from the northwest and very cold and disagreeable. We had a very good company drill. We drilled as skirmishers the first one we had for some time and in the afternoon had quite a long Brigade drill but had no dress parade on account of the lateness of the houre. Gen Gorman has returned to camp from Washington whither he has been for a few days on some official business. This evening we received orders to be ready to go on picket tomorrow morning at 9 o’clock and were to stay until Tuesday when we would be mustered in again for two months, it making the 4th mustering or 8 months in the service.

Saturday Dec 28th       The [weather] still continues to be fine but cool. This according to orders received last night we got ready for to go on picket. After I was all ready to go Lieut Sinclair came to my tent and told me that the Capt had detailed me to stay in camp and help build his log house. It was very much against my good will to stay but stay I had to. At 9 AM the company started and we went to work taking down the Capt’s tent and dug a foundation. After dinner some of us went after a load of logs. When we were coming back we met a funeral going to the burying place with two soldiers that had departed this life while in thire Countries service. They were members of the Michigan 7th Vol. The regiment had no drills to day But had dress parade at the usual houre. Orders were read that the Monthly Mustering would take place on Tuesday Dec 31st at two o’clock and stating the different Mustering and inspecting officers of the different Brigades and regiments. Some other orders were read but were of no importance.

Sunday Dec 29th       The morning was fair but cool during the day the sun shone warm. About 10 AM a battery of 4 guns went down by here to relief that which was down at the ferry, the one that went down has just arrived from Washington. Shortly I with some others went down to the ferry to see the boys. There I saw two of the new guns that shoot 60 shots in a minute. Likewise we we saw a small boat that is being prepared for two guns and to be used for a gunboat on the Potomac. It is to be propelled by 14 oars. Our Capt took some more liquor yesterday some belonging to Col. Tompkins of the 2nd NY. The ditches are dug for the fort or stockade and some of the timbers are hauled. Had dress parade. Orders were read that all guard and pickets any where near a telegraph line should guard the wire and posts and see that nothing happend to it and report to headquarters if it should be broken any where. Last night an alarm was occassioned below the ferry where the Mich. 7th is doing picket duty. Some floating ice made a noise and they thought that a boat was coming across with rebels in it and some of the men up and fired at the supposed enemy “but did not kill any” which roust the whole line of pickets. But every thing quiet the rest of the night “No more rebels floating down the river.”

Monday Dec 30          The morning dawned fair. I worked all day on the Capt’s house. The companies had a drill in the forenoon But no regimental drill. At dress parade orders were read to the affect that every man should be ready for inspection or a general muster tomorrow at 9 o’clock AM and Lieut Hoyt was releast from the Quartermaster department and Adjutant Leach was to take his place. I received one letter from Stillwater this Eve. The Michigan 7th buried 2 more of thire soldiers today. The measles are raging to a considerable extent in thire regiment.

Tuesday Dec 31 the last of 1861        The morning was cold but fair it being mustering day there was cleaning of Brass, Blackening of boots, scouring of guns & c. About 9 o’clock Co E was inspected and immediately started off to releif our company from picket. About 10 AM the whole Brigade marched in review then our regt came to camp, stacked arms on the parade ground and went to thire quarters. Our company came to camp about 12 and were soon ready for inspection. About 2 we were marched on the parade ground, answered to our names and had our arms and knapsacks inspected. Had no dress parade. A flag of truce went across the ferry today at 1 PM with communications from Gen Stone to Gen Hill at Leesburg. Last night two Negroes came across from Virginia in a boat and were taken up to Gen Stone by the 7th Michigan.

Wednesday January 1st 1862              Last night at 12 o’clock all the bands in this vicinity commenced to play. They “4 in number” made considerable noise and kept it up untell daybreak. I finished a letter in the morning then I was detailed as Corpl of the guard. About 10 AM the Balloon was again sun high above the high tree tops. It was let up in the same place that it went up before it remained up about an hour during the day we had considerable fun arresting drunken men. Tied up three to a post set by the guard house for that purpose and bucket gaged one besides quite a number of others were disposed of in the guard house. At dress parade orders were read or rather the transfer of A Davis from Co I to our Co B. The weather was very fine and warm untell about 10 o’clock at night the wind got in a Northwest and blew a perfect gale and cold enough to freeze a person.

Thursday Jan 2d, 1862                        The weather this [morning] was very cold and windy and continued to be so all day, I wrote one letter to Eph McCanifie The companies had very short drills during the day on account of the cold wind. Had dress parade an order was read prohibiting all officers from detailling soldiers to act as thire servands or do any kind menial service for them “a good order that was I think” one other order was read that all enlisted men that was found cutting up any ungentlemanly acts with any of the neighbours or inhabitands would be promptly arrested by the nearest guard and would be punished accordingly by order of Gen Stone. About 6 o’clock PM Charles Scheffer from Stillwater arrived here. We were all very glad to see him, he came to arange the soldiers alotments.

Jan 3d 1862                                         This morning was I think as cold if not the coldest of the season. The company had a short drill this fornoon and in the afternoon we had a long Brigade drill. Gen Gormans lady and Secretary Camerons sister in law and one other lady were present to see us perform likewise Mr. Scheffer. Had no parade on account of the late houre. This evening a lot of mittens came from Stillwater for some of the boys. They were sent by the Ladies arniver social circle. They intirely forgot this child…just as well I suppose. This evening about 8 o’clock it commenced to snow.

Saturday Jan 4th 1862                         This has been rather a wintery day in morning. It was snowing but stoped about 9 o’clock AM. The air was very cold. We then went up and allotted some of our pay some allotted $5 and some 10 per month, it varying from 5 to 100. The Capt allotted 30 and the both Lieuts 25 a piece. I allotted 7 ½ or 15 at a payment. Today was the day set for the exchange of prisoners from Leesburg some 3 or 400 in Number but I have not learnd whether the exchange took place or not. It appears that the rebels cant feed our prisoners there for wish to exchange them for those that our men took at Balls Bluff some 30 in number. Had dress parade but no orders were read of any importance. Mr. Scheffer spent part of this with us in our tent.

Jan 5                Co. inspection very early for Scheffer’s benefit. Dress parade. Orders by Gen. Stone to private soldiers inciting insubordination among the negroes.

Jan 6                No drill. Co. B allotted about $500 being more than any other Co. in regt.

Jan 7                Mr. Scheffer left for Kentucky. Capt. Downie goes to Washington with him. Batt. drill a.m. & Co. drill p.m. Dress parade. 3 prisoners returned from Leesburg. They had been wounded at Ball’s Bluff & 2 belonged to 15th Mass & 1 to California Regt.

Jan 8                Potomac frozen over. Last night a steam tug and 3 row boats – capacity 150 men each – arrived at Edwards Ferry from Washington in the canal. Long co. drill a.m. Brigade drill countermanded & Co. drill instead p.m. Dress parade.

Jan 9                Rain last night. Muddy. Police duty a.m.

Confederate Sunset at Pea Ridge

This video was shot by Jeffrey S. Williams, the moderator of This Week in the Civil War, on Aug. 22, 2011 at 8 p.m.

Maryland seeks to buy 14 acres of land near South Mountain Civil War battlefield for $55,600

Civil War Cannons in Maryland

MIDDLETOWN, Md. (AP) — A Department of Natural Resources official says the state of Maryland is seeking to buy some land near the South Mountain Civil War battlefield.

John Braskey told The Herald-Mail of Hagerstown newspaper on Tuesday that the two parcels near Middletown total 14.6 acres. One is a 9.1-acre parcel atop South Mountain that saw action during the battle. The smaller piece has scenic value.

The land belongs to the Central Maryland Heritage League. The group says the state has offered a fair price of about $55,600.

The deal would require approval by the state Board of Public Works.

South Mountain is Maryland’s only state-run Civil War battlefield. Federal and Confederate forces clashed there on Sept. 14, 1862, three days before the Battle of Antietam.

State considering land near South Mountain State Battlefield

By ANDREW SCHOTZ

andrews@herald-mail.com

6:21 PM EDT, August 16, 2011

The state has offered to buy land near South Mountain State Battlefield.

The parcels are the 9.1-acre Wise South Field and the 5.5-acre Mahaffey Woods, said John Braskey, the Western Maryland regional administrator for land acquisition and planning for the state Department of Natural Resources.

The land belongs to the Central Maryland Heritage League, a nonprofit group based in Middletown, Md.

Executive Director Bill Wilson said the league is interested in selling the parcels to the state. He said the state offered to pay $55,575, a price he called “eminently fair.”

He said the league is awaiting further instructions from the state on how the contract will be drawn up.

The final agreement will be sent to the state Board of Public Works for its approval.

South Mountain State Park runs along the border of Frederick and Washington counties.

The Department of Natural Resources’ website says the Civil War battle fought there on Sept. 14, 1862, was the first in Maryland and a turning point in the war.

“The Union victories at South Mountain and Antietam (fought three days later) led President Abraham Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation,” the DNR’s website says.

Wilson said the Wise property, at the top of South Mountain, encompasses land around Reno Monument and is battlefield land.

The Mahaffey property is about a quarter mile away on Reno Monument Road and is part of the viewshed around the battlefield.

Both parcels have easements that don’t allow development.

Wilson said the Central Maryland Heritage League and the state have talked about a possible sale for at least five years.

The idea resurfaced recently. A July 21 letter from the Department of Natural Resources to Terry Baker, the president of the Washington County Board of Commissioners, says there is a “potential real estate acquisition” in Washington County.

The DNR contacted Washington County because the properties “straddle the county line,” the letter says.

Public re-enactment of South Mountain, Antietam battles will be held in 2012

Two-day event on private land near Boonsboro will mark 150th anniversary of Civil War battles

By HEATHER KEELS heather.keels@herald-mail.com

HAGERSTOWN—

An estimated 4,000 Civil War re-enactors will stage a public re-enactment of the battles of South Mountain and Antietam on Sept. 8 and 9, 2012, on private land near Boonsboro, organizer Chris Anders said at a press conference Monday.

Thomas B. Riford, president of the Hagerstown-Washington County Convention and Visitors Bureau, leads a press conference Monday about the plans for the re-enactment of the 150th anniversary of the Battle of Antietam as re-enactment coordinator Chris Anders, left, and Ed Wenschhof, Antietam National Battlefield's acting superintendent and Dan Spedden, superintendent of the South Mountain Recreation Area, listen. (By Ric Dugan/Staff Photographer / August 8, 2011)

The event, called “Maryland, My Maryland,” is being staged by The Southern Division, an all-volunteer re-enactment organization, and will be sponsored by theHagerstownWashington County Convention and Visitors Bureau, Anders said.

Re-enactment of the Battle of Harpers Ferry might also be included, he said.

The event will be open to 2,000 spectators per day, and tickets will go on sale soon from the Convention and Visitors Bureau, he said. Tickets will cost $25 for one day or $40 for both days, CVB President Thomas B. Riford said. Those 6 and younger will be admitted free.

All proceeds from the event will go to the Central Maryland Heritage League to help preserve and interpret South Mountain State Battlefield and to Brittany’s Hope Foundation, a charity that helps with the adoption of special-needs children worldwide, Anders said.

The re-enactment will be held on about 100 acres of land at the foot of South Mountain near the intersection of Alt. U.S. 40 and Md. 67 east of Boonsboro.

“We’re setting up the event to be a very authentic event so people get a true Civil War experience,” Anders said.

Anders said he has organized about 20 re-enactments and is a partner in Rear Rank Productions, which specializes in coordinating logistical aspects of re-enactment events, such as water and signs.

His caps of 4,000 to 5,000 re-enactors and 2,000 spectators mean the event will be considerably smaller than the Battle of Antietam re-enactments staged in 1997 and 2002, which each attracted about 13,000 re-enactors and as many as 100,000 spectators.

Anders said smaller numbers will allow for higher authenticity and better views for spectators.

“The goal is that people actually see what happened in September 1862, what the troops looked like, how they camped, how they fought, not a fantasy world-type representation thereof,” he said.

Though the re-enactment commemorates the 150th anniversary of the Maryland Campaign, it is scheduled for several days before the actual dates of the battles to encourage visitors to attend commemorative events at the respective battlefields on the actual anniversary dates, Anders said.

The Battle of South Mountain was fought Sept. 14, 1862, for the possession of three mountain passes — Crampton’s, Turner’s and Fox’s Gaps — and resulted in about 6,000 casualties, Riford said.

The Battle of Antietam, three days later on Sept. 17, was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with 23,110 casualties.

Dan Spedden, superintendent of the South Mountain Recreation Area, announced at the same press conference Monday that the South Mountain State Battlefield’s sesquicentennial events will include the opening next spring of the battlefield’s first professionally designed museum exhibits.

The exhibits will be in three buildings — the visitors center at Washington Monument State Park, and the hall and lodge at Gathland State Park — and will interpret the Battle of South Mountain, Boonsboro’s Washington Monument, and the life of reporter and Civil War correspondent George Alfred Townsend.

The buildings that will house the exhibits are under renovation and will open in April, with a ribbon-cutting ceremony in May, Spedden said.

South Mountain State Battlefield’s commemorative events will include tours, hikes and living history displays each weekend beginning in June 2012. On Sept. 14 and 15, 2012, the battlefield will have living-history and artillery demonstrations, hikes and real-time battlefield tours, he said.

At Antietam National Battlefield, lectures and symposiums are scheduled throughout 2012, culminating Sept. 9 to 22 with speakers, tours, real-time hikes, Civil War-era music, a family activities tent, artillery and infantry demonstrations, and a Sept. 17 ceremony, said Ed Wenschhof, the battlefield’s acting superintendent.

On the Web
More information about the re-enactment is online at http://marylandmymaryland.marylandcampaign150.org.

What is the true origin of Taps?

24 Notes That Tap Deep Emotions

by Jari A. Villanueva

Of all the military bugle calls, none is so easily recognized or more apt to render emotion than the call Taps. The melody is both eloquent and haunting and the history of its origin is interesting and somewhat clouded in controversy. In the British Army, a similar call known as Last Post has been sounded over soldiers’ graves since 1885, but the use of Taps is unique with the United States military, since the call is sounded at funerals, wreath-laying and memorial services.

Taps began as a revision to the signal for Extinguish Lights (Lights Out) at the end of the day. Up until the Civil War, the infantry call for Extinguish Lights was the one set down in Silas Casey’s (1801-1882) Tactics, which had been borrowed from the French. The music for Taps was adapted by Union General Daniel Butterfield for his brigade (Third Brigade, First Division, Fifth Army Corps, Army of the Potomac) in July, 1862.

Daniel Adams Butterfield 31 October 1831-17 July 1901

Daniel Adams Butterfield (31 October 1831-17 July 1901) was born in Utica, New York and graduated from Union College at Schenectady. He was the eastern superintendent of the American Express Company in New York when the Civil War broke out. Despite his lack of military experience, he rose quickly in rank. A Colonel in the 12th Regiment of the New York State Militia, he was promoted to Brigadier General and given command of a brigade of the V Corps of the Army of the Potomac. The 12th served in the Shenandoah Valley during the the Bull Run Campaign. During the Peninsular Campaign Butterfield served prominently when during the Battle of Gaines Mill, despite an injury, he seized the colors of the 83rd Pennsylvania and rallied the regiment at a critical time in the battle. Years later, he was awarded the Medal of Honor for that act of heroism.

As the story goes, General Butterfield was not pleased with the call for Extinguish Lights feeling that the call was too formal to signal the days end and with the help of the brigade bugler, Oliver Willcox Norton, wrote Taps to honor his men while in camp at Harrison’s Landing, Virginia, following the Seven Day’s battle. These battles took place during the Peninsular Campaign of 1862. The call, sounded that night in July, 1862, soon spread to other units of the Union Army and was even used by the Confederates. Taps was made an official bugle call after the war.

The highly romantic account of how Butterfield composed the call surfaced in 1898 following a magazine article written that summer. The August, 1898 issue of Century Magazine contained an article called The Trumpet in Camp and Battle, by Gustav Kobbe, a music historian and critic. He was writing about the origin of bugle calls in the Civil War and in reference to Taps, wrote:

In speaking of our trumpet calls I purposely omitted one with which it seemed most appropriate to close this article, for it is the call which closes the soldier’s day. . . . Lights Out. I have not been able to trace this call to any other service. If it seems probable, it was original with Major Seymour, he has given our army the most beautiful of all trumpet-calls.

Kobbe was using as an authority the Army drill manual on infantry tactics prepared by Major General Emory Upton in 1867 (revised in 1874). The bugle calls in the manual were compiled by Major (later General) Truman Seymour of the 5th U.S. Artillery. Taps was called Extinguish Lights in these manuals since it was to replace the Lights Out call disliked by Butterfield. The title of the call was not changed until later, although other manuals started calling it Taps because most soldiers knew it by that name. Since Seymour was responsible for the music in the Army manual, Kobbe assumed that he had written the call. Kobbe s inability to find the origin of Extinguish Lights (Taps) prompted a letter from Oliver W. Norton in Chicago who claimed he knew how the call came about and that he was the first to perform it.

Norton wrote:

Chicago, August 8, 1898

I was much interested in reading the article by Mr. Gustav Kobbe, on the Trumpet and Bugle Calls, in the August Century. Mr. Kobbe says that he has been unable to trace the origin of the call now used for Taps, or the Go to sleep , as it is generally called by the soldiers. As I am unable to give the origin of this call, I think the following statement may be of interest to Mr. Kobbe and your readers.. .. During the early part of the Civil War I was bugler at the Headquarters of Butterfield s Brigade, Morell s Division, Fitz-John Porter s Corp, Army of the Potomac. Up to July, 1862, the Infantry call for Taps was that set down in Casey s Tactics, which Mr. Kobbe says was borrowed from the French. One day, soon after the seven days battles on the Peninsular, when the Army of the Potomac was lying in camp at Harrison’s Landing, General Daniel Butterfield, then commanding our Brigade, sent for me, and showing me some notes on a staff written in pencil on the back of an envelope, asked me to sound them on my bugle. I did this several times, playing the music as written. He changed it somewhat, lengthening some notes and shortening others, but retaining the melody as he first gave it to me. After getting it to his satisfaction, he directed me to sound that call for Taps thereafter in place of the regulation call. The music was beautiful on that still summer night, and was heard far beyond the limits of our Brigade. The next day I was visited by several buglers from neighboring Brigades, asking for copies of the music which I gladly furnished. I think no general order was issued from army headquarters authorizing the substitution of this for the regulation call, but as each brigade commander exercised his own discretion in such minor matters, the call was gradually taken up through the Army of the Potomac. I have been told that it was carried to the Western Armies by the 11th and 12th Corps, when they went to Chattanooga in the fall of 1863, and rapidly made it s way through those armies. I did not presume to question General Butterfield at the time, but from the manner in which the call was given to me, I have no doubt he composed it in his tent at Harrison s Landing. I think General Butterfield is living at Cold Spring, New York. If you think the matter of sufficient interest, and care to write him on the subject, I have no doubt he will confirm my statement. -Oliver W. Norton

The editor did write to Butterfield as suggested by Norton. In answer to the inquiry from the editor of the Century, General Butterfield writing from Gragside, Cold Spring, under the date of August 31, 1898 wrote:

I recall, in my dim memory, the substantial truth of the statement made by Norton, of the 83rd Pa., about bugle calls. His letter gives the impression that I personally wrote the notes for the call. The facts are, that at the time I could sound calls on the bugle as a necessary part of military knowledge and instruction for an officer commanding a regiment or brigade. I had acquired this as a regimental commander. I had composed a call for my brigade, to precede any calls, indicating that such were calls, or orders, for my brigade alone. This was of very great use and effect on the march and in battle. It enabled me to cause my whole command, at times, in march, covering over a mile on the road, all to halt instantly, and lie down, and all arise and start at the same moment; to forward in line of battle, simultaneously, in action and charge etc. It saves fatigue. The men rather liked their call, and began to sing my name to it. It was three notes and a catch. I can not write a note of music, but have gotten my wife to write it from my whistling it to her, and enclose it. The men would sing , Dan, Dan, Dan, Butterfield, Butterfield to the notes when a call came. Later, in battle, or in some trying circumstances or an advance of difficulties, they sometimes sang, Damn, Damn, Damn, Butterfield, Butterfield.

The call of Taps did not seem to be as smooth, melodious and musical as it should be, and I called in some one who could write music, and practiced a change in the call of Taps until I had it suit my ear, and then, as Norton writes, got it to my taste without being able to write music or knowing the technical name of any note, but, simply by ear, arranged it as Norton describes. I did not recall him in connection with it, but his story is substantially correct. Will you do me the favor to send Norton a copy of this letter by your typewriter? I have none. -Daniel Butterfield

On the surface, this seems to be the true history of the origin of Taps. Indeed, the many articles written about Taps cite this story as the beginning of Butterfield’s association with the call. Certainly, Butterfield never went out of his way to claim credit for its composition and it wasn’t until the Century article that the origin came to light.

There are however, significant differences in Butterfield’s and Norton’s stories. Norton says that the music given to him by Butterfield that night was written down on an envelope while Butterfield wrote that he could not read or write music! Also Butterfield’s words seem to suggest that he was not composing a melody in Norton s presence, but actually arranging or revising an existing one. As a commander of a brigade, he knew of the bugle calls needed to relay troop commands. All officers of the time were required to know the calls and were expected to be able to play the bugle. Butterfield was no different-he could play the bugle but could not read music. As a colonel of the 12th N.Y. Regiment, before the war, he had ordered his men to be thoroughly familiar with calls and drills.

What could account for the variation in stories? My research shows that Butterfield did not compose Taps but actually revised an earlier bugle call. This sounds blasphemous to many, but the fact is that Taps existed in an early version of the call Tattoo. As a signal for end of the day, armies have used Tattoo to signal troops to prepare them for bedtime roll call. The call was used to notify the soldiers to cease the evening’s drinking and return to their garrisons. It was sounded an hour before the final call of the day to extinguish all fires and lights. This early version is found in three manuals the Winfield Scott (1786 -1866 ) manual of 1835, the Samuel Cooper (1798-1876) manual of 1836 and the William Gilham (1819?-1872) manual of 1861. This call referred to as the Scott Tattoo was in use from 1835-1860. A second version of Tattoo came into use just before the Civil War and was in use throughout the war replacing the Scott Tattoo.

The fact that Norton says that Butterfield composed Taps cannot be questioned. He was relaying the facts as he remembered them. His conclusion that Butterfield wrote Taps can be explained by the presence of the second Tattoo. It was most likely that the second Tattoo, followed by Extinguish Lights (the first eight measures of today’s Tattoo), was sounded by Norton during the course of the war.

It seems possible that these two calls were sounded to end the soldier’s day on both sides during the war. It must therefore be evident that Norton did not know the early Tattoo or he would have immediately recognized it that evening in Butterfield’s tent. If you review the events of that evening, Norton came into Butterfield’s tent and played notes that were already written down on an envelope. Then Butterfield changed it somewhat, lengthening some notes and shortening others, but retaining the melody as he first gave it to me. If you compare that statement while looking at the present day Taps, you will see that this is exactly what happened to turn the early (Scott) Tattoo in Taps. Butterfield as stated above, was a Colonel before the War and in General Order No. 1 issued by him on December 7, 1859 had the order: The Officers and non-commissioned Officers are expected to be thoroughly familiar with the first thirty pages, Vol. 1, Scott’s Tactics, and ready to answer any questions in regard to the same previous to the drill above ordered Scott’s Tactics include the bugle calls that Butterfield must have known and used.

If Butterfield was using Scott’s Tactics for drills, then it is feasible that he would have used the calls as set in the manual. Lastly, it is hard to believe that Butterfield could have composed anything that July in the aftermath of the Seven Days battles which saw the Union Army of the Potomac mangled by Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. Over twenty six thousand casualties were suffered on both sides. Butterfield had lost over 600 of his men on June 27th at the battle of Gaines Mill and had himself been wounded. In the midst of the heat, humidity, mud, mosquitoes, dysentery, typhoid and general wretchedness of camp life in that early July, it is hard to imagine being able to write anything.

In the interest of historical accuracy, it should be noted that it is not General Butterfield who composed Taps, rather that he revised an earlier call into the present day bugle call we know as Taps. This is not meant to take credit away from him. It is only to put things in a correct historic manner. Following the Peninsular Campaign, Butterfield served at 2nd Bull Run, Antietam and at Marye’s Heights in the Battle of Fredericksburg. Through political connections and his ability for administration, he became a Major General and served as chief of staff of the Union Army of the Potomac under Generals Joseph Hooker and George Meade. He was wounded at Gettysburg and then reassigned to the Western Theater. By war’s end, he was breveted a brigadier general and stayed in the army after the Civil War, serving as superintendent of the army’s recruiting service in New York City and colonel of the 5th Infantry. In 1870, after resigning from the military, Butterfield went back to work with the American Express Company. He was in charge of a number of special public ceremonies, including General William Tecumseh Sherman’s funeral in 1891. Besides his association with Taps, Butterfield also designed the system of Corps Badges which were distinctive shapes of color cloth sewn on to uniforms to distinguish units.

Butterfield died in 1901. His tomb is the most ornate in the cemetery at West Point despite the fact that he never attended. There is also a monument to Butterfield in New York City near Grant’s Tomb. There is nothing on either monument that mentions Taps or Butterfield’s association with the call. Taps was sounded at his funeral.

How did it become associated with funerals? The earliest official reference to the mandatory use of Taps at military funeral ceremonies is found in the U.S. Army Infantry Drill Regulations for 1891, although it had doubtless been used unofficially long before that time, under its former designation Extinguish Lights.

The first use of Taps at a funeral during the Peninsular Campaign in Virginia. Captain John C. Tidball of Battery A, 2nd Artillery ordered it played for the burial of a cannoneer killed in action. Since the enemy was close, he worried that the traditional 3 volleys would renew fighting.

During the Peninsular Campaign in 1862, a soldier of Tidball’s Battery – A of the 2nd Artillery – was buried at a time when the battery occupied an advanced position, concealed in the woods. It was unsafe to fire the customary three volleys over the grave on account of the proximity of the enemy, and it occurred to Captain Tidball that the sounding of Taps would be the most ceremony that would be substituted. The custom, thus originated, was taken up throughout the Army of the Potomac, and finally confirmed by orders. Colonel James A. Moss Officer’s Manual Pub. George Banta Publishing Co. Menasha Wisconsin 1913 Elbridge Coby in Army Talk (Princeton, 1942), p.208 states that it was B Battery of the Third Artillery that first used Taps at a military funeral.

This first sounding of Taps at a military funeral is commemorated in a stained glass window at The Chapel of the Centurion (The Old Post Chapel) at Fort Monroe, Virginia. The window, made by R. Geissler of New York and based on a painting by Sidney King, was dedicated in 1958 and shows a bugler and a flag at half staff. In that picture a drummer boy stands beside the bugler. The grandson of that drummer boy purchased Berkeley Plantation where Harrisons Landing is located. The site where Taps was born is also commemorated. In this case, by a monument located on the grounds of Berkeley Plantation. This monument to Taps was erected by the Virginia American Legion and dedicated on July 4, 1969. The site is also rich in history, for the Harrisons of Berkeley Plantation included Benjamin Harrison and William Henry Harrison, both presidents of the United States as well as Benjamin Harrison (father and Great grandfather of future presidents), a signer of the Declaration of Independence.

It must be pointed out that other stories of the origin of Taps exist. A popular one is that of a Northern boy who was killed fighting for the south. His father, Robert Ellicombe a Captain in the Union Army, came upon his son’s body on the battlefield and found the notes to Taps in a pocket of the dead boy’s Confederate uniform. When Union General Daniel Sickles heard the story, he had the notes sounded at the boy’s funeral. There is no evidence to back up the story or the existence of Captain Ellicombe. As with many other customs, this solemn tradition continues today. Although Butterfield merely revised an earlier bugle call, his role in producing those 24 notes gives him a place in the history of music as well as the history of war.

As soon as Taps was sounded that night in July 1862, words were put with the music. The first were, “Go To Sleep, Go to Sleep.” As the years went on many more versions were created. There are no official words to the music but here are some of the more popular verses:

Day is done, gone the sun,
From the hills, from the lake,
From the sky.
All is well, safely rest,
God is nigh.

Go to sleep, peaceful sleep,
May the soldier or sailor,
God keep.
On the land or the deep,
Safe in sleep.

Love, good night, Must thou go,
When the day, And the night
Need thee so?
All is well. Speedeth all
To their rest.

Fades the light; And afar
Goeth day, And the stars
Shineth bright,
Fare thee well; Day has gone,
Night is on.

Thanks and praise, For our days,
‘Neath the sun, Neath the stars,
‘Neath the sky,
As we go, This we know,
God is nigh.


Jari A. Villanueva, jvmusic@erols.com is a bugler and bugle historian. A graduate of the Peabody Conservatory and Kent State University, he was the curator of the Taps Bugle Exhibithttp://www.arlingtoncemetery.com/tapsproj.htm at Arlington National Cemetery from 1999-2002. He has been a member of the United States Air Force Band since 1985 and is considered the country’s foremost authority on the bugle call of Taps.

His website, www.tapsbugler.com includes a history of Taps, performance information and guidelines for funerals, finding buglers for sounding calls, many photos of bugles and buglers, music for bugle calls, stories and myths about Taps, Taps at the JFK funeral, ordering his 60 page booklet on Taps (24 Notes That Tap Deep Emotions) and many links to bugle related sites. Jari is also working on book on the History of Bugle Call in the United States Military.


War diaries give new view of ‘Burg’s past

Park Service tours highlight civilian experience in Fredericksburg during the Civil War.

BY CLINT SCHEMMER ; The Freelance-Star

Park Service historian John Hennessy shares diary entries written by Fredericksburg residents during the Civil War. CLINT SCHEMMER/THE FREE LANCE-STAR

FREDERICKSBURG, Va. – Most diaries are mundane. Not so those that historian John Hennessy shared with area residents and visitors this weekend on two walking tours of downtown Fredericksburg, as seen through the eyes of local people who experienced and chronicled the Civil War. Read the words of Mamie Wells, of a Unionist family here, describing how people scurried to take shelter from the Union army’s 13-hour bombardment of the town on Dec. 11, 1862:

“In the streets the confusion was dreadful. Here, a child was left, its frantic mother having fled; and there a husband, who, in the excitement of the moment, had become separated from his wife, ran madly about Here, families were crouching in their dark cellars for protection from the ruthless shells; while there, the more reckless ascended to the house-top to view the impossible grandeur of the scene.”

Or listen to Fredericksburg’s Betty Herndon Maury write of Confederate troops flowing through the town in June 1861:

“GREAT suffering and neglect at the hospital. Some of the soldiers are being removed to private houses. Some of the ladies here devote almost their whole time to the sick. Uncle Brodie Herndon is attending some of those who are at private houses. I never saw anything like the spirit here! The women give up the greater part of their time to nursing the sick or sewing for the soldiers. And it is the same case throughout the South.”

Hennessy, chief historian of Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, enthralled some 150 people Saturday with a taste of the riveting accounts penned by six diarists and memoirists.

Beginning in Market Square behind Old Town Hall, he led them on fast-paced, 90-minute jaunts up Caroline Street, then up to the corner of Princess Anne and Lewis streets, stopping at each chronicler’s home.

His tours, in the morning and the afternoon, ended at the home of diarist Jane Howison Beale–which was opened to the public in mid-afternoon for Historic Fredericksburg Foundation Inc.’s launch of a new edition of Beale’s 1850-62 journal.

Most Civil War tours in the city focus on the military side of the Battle of Fredericksburg. These were the first National Park Service tours focused on civilian families’ experiences.

Participants admired the exteriors of the homes of Mamie Wells, Dr. Brodie S. Herndon, Betty Herndon Maury, John Washington, Lizzie Alsop and Jane Beale.

Dr. Herndon owned what we know today as The Chimneys, a massive brick house at Caroline and Charlotte streets. He is credited with being the first doctor in the U.S. to perform a Caesarean section. His niece, Ellen Herndon, married future President Chester A. Arthur.

Just up Charlotte Street, at Princess Anne Street, is Haydon Hall, the wartime home of Betty Herndon Maury.

Hennessy called her diary “a great combination of newsy and personal” that is Fredericksburg’s most complete account for 1861-62. Betty’s diary is full of high-level insight into the machinations of Jefferson Davis’ government because her uncle, famed oceanographer Matthew Fontaine Maury, was the Confederacy’s chief of naval defenses. But as a woman in the mid-19th century, she wasn’t credited for her intelligence.

On July 4, 1861, she wrote: “My husband returned from Richmond yesterday. Whether he got the appointment I have not the most remote idea. I asked him to tell me where he went and what he did. He answered, ‘Oh, I went everywhere,’ then told me he had had tomatoes for dinner. The rest he thought above my comprehension, and reserved for some more fortunate male friend. Everybody gives me credit for more brains than my husband does.”

The next stop was PNC Bank, originally the Farmers Bank. Sharing an intersection with two churches and the courthouse designed by architect James Renwick, the bank was where John Washington lived.

Washington, an urban slave whose mother gave him the gift of literacy (at a time when that was illegal), left what Hennessy called a “priceless” account of his journey from bondage to freedom. When his mother was hired out for work elsewhere by their owners, he wrote:

“The night before Mother left me (as I was to be kept in hand by the Old Mistress for especial use) She, came up to my little room I slept in the ‘white peoples house’ and laid down on my bed by me and begged me for her own sake try and be a good boy, say my prayers every night, remember all she had tried to teach me and always think of her. Her tears mingled with mine amid kisses and heart felt sorrow. She tucked the Bed Cloth around me and bade me good night.

“Bitter pangs filled my heart and thought I would rather die Then and there My hatred was kindled secretly against my oppressors and I promised myself if ever I got an opportunity I would run away from the devilish Slave holders.”

From the bank, the tour groups headed up Princess Anne to the stately home of a world-class flirt, 16-year-old Lizzie Alsop, daughter of Joseph Alsop, the largest slaveowner in Fredericksburg.

Alsop delights readers by recalling how she was courted by nearly a dozen men, but spurned every one. She also charts the emotional ups and downs of the Confederacy and records her disdain for the town’s Union occupiers. Hennessy called her “the most eloquent hater of Yankees.”

On May 23, 1862, she wrote: “We Confederates are, generally speaking, the most cheerful people imaginable, and treat the Yankees with silent contempt Ah! They little know the hatred in our hearts towards them–the GREAT scorn we entertain for Yankees. I never hear or see a Federal riding down the street that I don’t wish his neck may be broken before he crosses the bridge.”

The tours ended at the Lewis Street home where Jane Beale and her family took refuge from the Union shelling that began the battle.

“Hers is the best source we have for the practical impact of and the emotional reaction to the end of slavery,” Hennessy said. “Nobody reads her diary for that purpose, though.”

As the bombardment started, Beale wrote, “before we were half dressed, the heavy guns of the enemy began to pour their shot and shell upon our ill-fated town, and we hastily gathered our remaining garments, and rushed into our Basement.”

When a shell struck the house, a brick struck her youngest son, bruising him. Many hours later they escaped through the cellar door and fled town in an ambulance.

“We were shoved into the vehicle without much ceremony, and the horses dashed off at a speed that at another time would have alarmed me, but now seemed all too slow for our feverish impatience to be beyond the reach of those terrible shots,” Beale wrote. “One struck a building just as we passed it, another tore up the ground a short distance from us.”

Beale, who mothered 10 children, survived the war and lived at 307 Lewis St. until her death in 1882.

hffi.org, cvbt.org

Clint Schemmer: 540/368-5029
Email: cschemmer@freelancestar.com

VIRGINIA STATE OFFICIALS AND CIVIL WAR TRUST TO LAUNCH NEW SMARTPHONE TOUR OF FREDERICKSBURG BATTLEFIELD

(Fredericksburg, Va.) – On Wednesday, May 4, 2011, officials from the Civil War Trust, the Commonwealth of Virginia and the Fredericksburg Department of Economic Development and Tourism will gather to launch an exciting smartphone-based mobile tour of the Fredericksburg battlefield.  Using GPS technology and Apple’s iPhone platform, the Fredericksburg “Battle App” will help tourists locate and learn about historic sites using audio, video and animated content.

The Battle App offers four individual tours that take visitors to well-known sites currently protected by the National Park Service, as well as lesser-known battlefield locations in downtown Fredericksburg and elsewhere.  In addition to multimedia content, users also have easy access to full orders of battle, chronologies, fact sheets and even a quiz.

The Fredericksburg Battle App was developed by the Civil War Trust and its technology partner NeoTreks, with the support of the Virginia Department of Transportation.  The news conference unveiling this exciting new method of exploring the Fredericksburg battlefield will be held in the Mary Washington Room of the Courtyard Fredericksburg Historic District Hotel at 10 a.m. on Wednesday May 4, 2011.  The product will be demonstrated at the event.

WHO:  Secretary of Transportation Sean T. Connaughton, Speaker of the House of Delegates Bill Howell, Fredericksburg Director of Economic Development and Tourism Director Karen Hedelt, Civil War Trust President James Lighthizer and NeoTreks President Michael Bullock

WHAT: News conference launching new smartphone tour of Fredericksburg Battlefield

WHEN: May 4, 2011 at 10 a.m. ET

WHERE: Courtyard Fredericksburg Historic District Hotel, 620 Caroline Street, Fredericksburg, Va.

The Civil War Trust is the largest nonprofit battlefield preservation organization in the United States.  Its goal is to preserve our nation’s endangered Civil War sites and to promote appreciation of these hallowed grounds through education and heritage tourism.  To date, the Trust has preserved more than 30,000 acres of battlefield land in 20 states, including nearly 16,000 acres in Virginia.  Please visit the Trust’s website at www.civilwar.org, the home of the Civil War sesquicentennial.

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